National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra house game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally among groups, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.