National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used since the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest expense item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.