National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue equally among groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the common business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.