1997 Nfl Super Bowl

National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:

No. of teams 32

Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site

including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.

1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.

The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.

These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff development

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.

The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..

In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game prize.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.

In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.

The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income similarly among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.

The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in contravention of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme revenues.

Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is topped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.

A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.

NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.

1997 Nfl Super Bowl