National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been experienced where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial duties, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income equally amongst teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.