National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the private video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the house group while half the groups have only 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.