National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had been come across where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the largest cost product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.