National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been experienced where two teams were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just eight home video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.