National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been experienced where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in breach of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.