National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used considering that the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of four growth teams, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the home group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.