National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.