National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home team while half the teams have just 8 house games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such profits equally amongst teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.