National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the specific games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been used since the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the groups have only eight house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in contravention of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on since the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.